A Quick Look at Golf Clubs

Perhaps you have been watching golf for quite a while now. One of the things you will observe is that players bring and use a multitude of clubs. As a golfing newbie, probably the first thing that you would ask is this: do they actually need and use all of those clubs? Ask those who have been around the game for a while, and they would tell you that you’ll need every single club that’s in your bag at one point or another. To better understand the logic and usefulness of having a full complement of Hybrid clubs, it would be necessary to take a closer look on how they are developed.

Hybrid clubsClubs are designed in different ways to perform particular tasks while you are at the golf course. Each piece in a set is used in particular situations to give a golfer a tactical advantage while playing. There are 3 ways to classify them depending on their design and function.

1. Driver- These clubs are constructed to propel the ball as far as possible. Used when teeing off in a hole, the main purpose for designing drivers is to carry the ball as close to the hole as possible. The design of these clubs is designed accordingly. They have long handles that create maximum torque during a swing, and they have flat and massive heads that make strong strokes effortless. With the help of woods, the ball can easily reach hundreds of yards on a single swing.

2. Iron- While the wood is designed for maximum horizontal travel, the iron is designed for making the ball travel a vertical trajectory. The length of these clubs is slightly shorter than those found in a wood club, and they have heads that are angled to propel the ball upwards. Irons have the most variety among all clubs. Low-numbered clubs perform almost like drivers, albeit with a little more orientation to elevation than distance. High-numbered clubs, including wedges, are designed to propel the ball on a high trajectory. Irons are used to clear obstacles, get out of bunkers, and set up for putts.

3. Putter- The putter is designed for completing short-distance shots called putts. They are used to close out holes, especially when the distance between the player and the hole is only 100 feet or less. In contrast to drivers and irons where maximum power and distance is the primary priority, the putter’s design is tailor made for stability and precision. The grip is created in such a way that the golfer’s aim is steadied, and the head is designed to strike the ball cleanly and make it roll smoothly to the hole.

Technology used in Hybrid clubs have steadily grew over the history of the sport. There used to be a time when these clubs are made of wood, but the material used in them has also significantly evolved over time. The most basic material used in these clubs is steel as they are strong, durable, and relatively affordable. However, new materials such as aluminum, titanium, composite resin, and carbon fiber are now also being used for making clubs. While these modern materials are significantly more expensive, they provide a competitive advantage because they are much lighter. It is a matter of budget and personal preference on which material is best for creating an ideal golf club.

Every single bit of technological improvement bestowed on golf clubs is made with the goal of improving both the game and the player. Still, no matter how advanced a set of Hybrid clubs are, it is still up to its wielder to maximize its full potential. Selecting the right set is all about where its user would be most comfortable. It is also up to the player on how they would practice their stroke and when they would select the right club at the right time. The pick-up here is this: the golfer, not his/her equipment, that determines success in the game of golf.

Mixed Methods of Attaching Components to Printed Circuit Boards

Combinations of mixed technologies are used for more suitability with a product’s circuit board design. Each basic attachment method, whether single-sided through-hole, double-sided plated through-hole, single-sided surface-mount, and double-sided surface-mount, has different advantages and limitations. This is of course the reason why developers have used mixed methods or the combinations of the basic attachment methods in printed circuit boards. In mixed assembly PCBS, several variations can be made. They can be one of the following configurations:

• Single-sided boards containing both the through-hole components (TH) and surface-mount (SM) components on one side only.

• Double-sided boards containing mixed through-hole (TH) and surface-mount (SM) components on one side and surface-mount (SM) components on the other.

• Double-sided boards containing the leaded through-hole (TH) components on one side and the surface-mount (SM) components on the other side.

Single-Sided Mixed Assembly

pcbnetThis method combines through-hole and surface-mount technologies on single-sided printed circuit boards. The assembly process involves two steps. First is to screen-print the solder pastes on the board’s surface, place the surface-mount components on them, and then let them undergo reflow soldering. Second is to insert all the leaded through-hole components, and solder them via wave soldering or hand soldering. The conventional flow of the single mixed assembly process is to surface-mount first, then to through-hole.

This is done to manage some issues. One of them is that TH components can be too large that they can obstruct the application of solder paste and the pick-and-place process for SM components. Aside from component size issues, SM components sometimes undergo repeated reflow soldering and the TH components could not take excessive thermal excursions. Similarly, some TH components cannot handle the heat of the reflow oven without getting damaged. This is why assembly process is done in the SMT then THT order. Then, during the TH selective, manual, or wave soldering, SM parts are protected by Wave Fixtures to keep them from falling off the board.

If desired, the order of the assembly process can definitely be reversed. However, the specifications of the TH components must be compatible with SMT. The order of assembly is important for mass production optimization. Mixed method assembly may also include surface-mounting components onto PGA sockets and attaching PGAs to printed circuit boards by through-hole technology. The single sided through-hole with surface-mount is the most common method used in electronic product assembly.

Double-Sided Mixed Assembly

Double-sided mixed assembly can be categorized into two. First is the separated SM and TH parts on each side of the board. Second is the mixed SM and TH parts on one side and SM parts on the back side of the board. For this discussion, the topic will be focused on the second category. The package may be described as the combination of double-sided SM and single-sided TH assembly. In most cases, the SM components on the mixed side of the board are passive components, such as resistors and bypass capacitors since they can withstand TH wave soldering process. The assembly process for the double-sided mixed assembly follows the same order as that of the single sided mixed boards, which is SMT first then THT.

For the complete assembly process, there are three steps. First is the placement of the SM parts and reflow solder process on the front side. Next is the placement of the SM parts and reflow solder process on the back side of the board. Lastly is the insertion of the TH parts on the front side and wave solder process. This type of assembly can sometimes be prone to assembly defects due to the extra exposure to heat and operational procedures. It is also time consuming, highly technical, and delicate. Nevertheless, double-sided mixed assembly for printed circuit boards guarantees enhanced performance.

The Uses and Side Effects of Human Chorionic Gonadotropin in Infertility Treatments

The Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (HCG) hormone is primarily correlated to the reproductive processes. Secreted by the placenta in rich supplies after a series of cell divisions that follow egg fertilization, HCG in serum and urine signals pregnancy in women of child-bearing age.

While it is involved in the all-natural process of uterine nourishment, advances in HCG research had placed this glycoprotein hormone in the center stage of infertility treatment for women. If you want to get more knowledge visit www.1hcgdrops.com.

HCG combines with fertility-inducing drug clomiphene by supplementing its ovulation-induction properties resulting in higher pregnancy success rates. Clomiphene is a first-line fertility treatment because it is less invasive and is more conveniently administered in oral dosage.

1hcgdropsIn cases of women with low hormone levels or those who are not ovulating, HCG can also be combined with other gonadotropins like human follicle-stimulating hormones (FSH) or human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG) to raise hormone levels or stimulate ovulation. A solitary dose of HCG in the ovulation induction stage of in-vitro fertilization (IVF) or intrauterine insemination (IUI) stimulates the ovary to release mature eggs for harvesting or injection.

Starting on the 2nd day of the menstrual cycle, women undergoing IVF or IUI fertility treatments receive daily shots of either hMG of FSH for about 12 days to stimulate the development of mature follicles. At this time, a transvaginal ultrasound is performed regularly and repeatedly to monitor egg maturation, while serum samples are extracted to test estrogen levels.

The emergence of ripe eggs signifies that the ovary is ready to ovulate. At this stage, a shot of human chorionic gonadotropin is administered to induce ovulation, approximately within 36 hours. This provides a window for scheduling insemination or egg retrieval at the optimal time. Success rates of fertility treatments with gonadotropins range from 20% to 40%.

Low sperm counts can also cause sterility in men. If these are caused by low testosterone levels, treatment with HCG can help normalize testosterone levels to boost sperm levels. Treatment routine starts with 3 shots of HCG in a week’s time to restore normal blood testosterone count. On average, this phase could take 5-6 months depending on the patient’s starting condition or response to the treatment. Once the testosterone levels are up to bat, injection frequency is toned down to 2 HCG shots in a week and are complemented with either the hMG or FSH until such time that normal sperm levels are reached.

Although relatively rare, some side effects can occur with HCG use in fertility or medical treatments.

Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) is the more serious risk for women taking fertility treatments with HCG. Severe manifestations are extremely uncommon and range from excruciating pain in the abdominal area to respiratory difficulties. Discolored urine, as well as unexplained and sudden weight gains may also be observed. Mild occurrence of OHSS is more common although not that prevalent as statistics peg the risk at 25% of women who starts on HCG treatment. More frequent mild symptoms include abdominal pain, watery stool, bloating, vomiting, and tenderness.

HCG treatment can cause fluid retention which can fuel weight increase. This can be compounded by the occurrence of edema which brings about bloating and heavier appearance.

HCG is a pregnancy and reproduction-related hormone. Hence, other body parts related to these processes may experience some changes or sensations that go away as soon as the body learns to adjust to HCG’s intervention. Some swelling and tenderness may manifest in the breast. Pain may also be felt in certain parts of the breast and cause undue alarm.

Finally, HCG treatments shake body chemistry and affect the emotional health of patients. Dark moods, irritability, and depression are common during treatment.

Why Custom Challenge Coins Are Important

Do you know what a challenge coin is? It is a medallion, pendant, or coin which is commonly provided to members of a military unit. Commonly, the leader of the military group is the only one entitled to give such coins. Giving custom challenge coins to subordinates was first started in the World War I. In that time, wealthy military leaders provide their subordinates with custom challenge coins before they go with their tasks. The reason why it is called a challenge coin is that the owner of the coin may “challenge” his co-member to take a glance of his coin. As a rule of thumb, the medallion-like coin should be carried by the owner all the time.

Such coins are not only meant to be a souvenir of the soldiers from the warfare. Given below are the reasons why a challenge coin is important.


Custom Challenge CoinsAll challenge coins carry the motto, logo, symbol or trademark of a particular military unit. This provides a unique identity for that particular military unit. Once an individual saw that coin, he would easily recognize that it belongs to a member of a particular military unit. If the military group does not have any badge or ID, challenge coins are used as a means of identification. These coins show how the members give importance to their military group and how proud they are as members of that unit. They always wear or carry the coin so that other people can recognize from which group they belong. This is why challenge coin was created in the first place. If a member of a particular unit is captured by a rival group, and the coin is seen and recognized, chances are the rival group would deliver that member to the area of execution.


Another function of challenge coins is that it serves as a token of loyalty and dedication to the group. Depending on the motto, insignia and trademark of the unit, each member is given a challenge coin that represents the unit. This reminds the member to be forever loyal and honest to the unit. If by chance, a member is assigned to another unit, he will then receive another coin.


Brotherhood is another reason why custom challenge coins are made. Due to their commitment and dedication, all members treat other members as their own brothers or sisters. They care for each other as if they belong to the same family. Whenever a member needs help, other members are more than willing to help him.


It is already a convention for military groups to create their custom challenge coins. Before, only military members can hold such coin. It symbolizes unity, good relationship and harmony between the members of the military unit. It promotes fellowship and friendship among the members. When the members carry this coin, they feel more confident to face other military units.


Another reason why a challenge coin was given to a member is that it is a sign of appreciation for all the sacrifices that the solder have done for the sake of the military unit. It is to show how the leader values his members’ strength, bravery, and loyalty to the country. During a battle, the member who shows a commendable performance will be given with a unique challenge coin. Aside from the regular salary, bonus challenge coins are given to the member with the best performance for the entire battle. Another way of the leader to show his gratitude is to give challenge coins to his members.


To recognize the noteworthy performance of a certain military member, a challenge coin is given to him by his commanding officer. Medals are usually given as rewards but custom challenge coins can also be used as a means of recognition.


All challenge coins carry the motto, logo, symbol or trademark of a particular military unit.

What You Ought to Know When Searching for Homes for Sale in Garden City NY

Moving to a new home could be really stressful. However, there are ways to lessen the stress and worries when you are searching for homes for sale in Garden City NY. Researching about homes on the market can make it easier. The process need not be laborious; it just takes a bit of sorting. There are several primary factors that you need to consider to make certain your search proceeds smoothly, to know more click here.

Consider the Location in Garden City NY

real estateThe primary step when it comes to searching homes for sale is to choose a particular area in Garden City where you would like to live. Do you want to stay near primary schools or do you want to move to a place near shopping districts? When you are considering locations, there are numerous factors that you need to bear in mind as these could vary according to your preferences and needs. It is important to choose locations that are suitable if you have children and pets. Also determine how much home and garden space you need.

Searching Online

One great advantage that the internet has been providing over the last three decades is the opportunity to have all information within your reach in just a matter of seconds. Nowadays, you can do away with the need to find a realtor to find homes for sale in Garden City NY because you can just look them up online. You must find reliable realty websites to search for homes for sale. A reliable website often has comprehensive descriptions of the property including images and information about the location. You can use the internet to find a short list of potential properties that you want. This can also save time as you no longer need to conduct site visits as often as before.

Once you have your list of homes for sale in Garden City NY, you can visit the properties that are at the top of your list. You can also consult with a realtor if you need professional advice when you make your decisions. This is important if you have questions about the house you want to purchase that cannot be answered by the information found on the websites.

Searching for Great Deals

If you are on a tight budget or you want to save money, there are numerous options for you to find great deals on homes for sale. You can consult with realtors to search for properties that can be purchased within your budget. Basically, it is an affordable option to find a home that you can easily renovate to suit your preferences and needs. Keep your options open to check if there are old homes in Garden City that you can buy for lower prices.